This text is published as Appendix 1 in the Pre-Course Information of the FA Youth Award – Module 1 course.

ABDUCTION – Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body, or of fingers or toes from the medial longitudinal axis of the hand or foot.

ADDUCTION – Movement of a limb toward or beyond the midline of the body, or of fingers or toes toward the midline of a body part.

ADIPOSE TISSUE – Fairly loose connective tissue containing large numbers of fat storing adipocytes which make up 90 per cent of the tissue. Adipose tissue is richly vascularized and has high metabolic activity. It may develop anywhere, but tends to accumulate in subcutaneous tissue where it can act as a shock-absorber and insulator. Women tend to have more adipose tissue than men.

AEROBIC – Applied to conditions or processes which occur in the presence of, or requiring, oxygen.

AFFERENT NEURONES – A nerve cell that conveys nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the body to the central nervous system; also called sensory neurones.

AGONISTS – The prime movers in any muscle action.

ALL-OR-NOTHING PRINCIPLE – The tendency of muscle fibres to contract fully or not at all, and of neurons to fire at full power or not at all.

ANAEROBIC – Applied to conditions or processes not requiring oxygen; in the absence of oxygen.

ANATOMY – The study of the body and its parts.

ANTAGONISTS – A muscle that opposes the movement of a prime mover.

ANTERIOR – The front of a person, an organ, or a part of the body.

ARTICULATIONS – A joint, the place where bones meet, or where cartilages or bones and cartilage meet.

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE – The smooth cartilage that caps the bones facing the synovial cavity; also called hyaline cartilage.

ASSOCIATION NEURONES – A neurone, originating and terminating wholly in the spinal cord, that connects various segments of the spinal cord.

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) – A nucleotide containing adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP is a complex organic compound formed from the addition of a phosphate group onto adenosine diphosphate. The process is endergonic, with the energy for the process being obtained from respiration of food. ATP is stored in cells, especially muscle cells. The hydrolysis of each molecule of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate is accompanied by the release of a relatively large amount of free energy (34 kJ at pH 7) which is used to drive metabolic functions, including muscle contractions. An active cell needs more than 2 million ATP molecules per second to drive its biochemical machinery. The store of ATP in the body is sufficient to supply its needs for only a few seconds; therefore, it needs to be continuously replenished. ATP is the only form of energy which can be used directly by the cell for its activities.

BLOOD – Connective tissue consisting of erythrocytes, white blood cells, and blood platelets, with a liquid matrix called plasma. It is the main transport medium in the body.

CAPILLARIES – Tiny blood vessels that connect the arterial and venous systems.

CARBOHYDRATE – A molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1; the main source of body energy

CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) – The quantity of blood pumped by either ventricle, but not both, in 1 minute.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) – The brain and spinal cord.

CONCENTRIC – A form of isotonic muscle contraction which occurs when the muscle develops sufficient tension to overcome a resistance, so that the muscle visibly shortens and moves a body part.

DISTAL – A directional term applied to a part of the body further from the centre of the body or trunk.

DORSIFLEXION – Flexion of the foot at the ankle joint.

ECCENTRIC – An isotonic contraction in which a muscle lengthens while developing tension. Such contractions are used to resist external forces such as gravity. They also occur during the deceleration phases of locomotion.

EFFERENT NEURONES – A nerve cell that conveys nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to the effectors; also called motor neurones.

ENERGY – The capacity for doing work. The SI unit for energy is the joule, although the calorie is still commonly used. There are many different interconvertible forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, heat energy, nuclear energy, and radiant energy) but the only form which can be used directly by the body is adenosine triphosphate, derived from food by respiration.

ERYTHROCYTES –

EVERSION –

EXTENSION –

FAT –

FIXATORS –

FLEXION –

GLUCOSE –

GLYCOLYTIC SYSTEM –

GLYCOGEN –

HEART RATE –

HEMOGLOBIN –

HOMEOSTATIS –

HYPOTHALAMUS –

INFERIOR –

INVERSION –

ISOMETRIC –

LACTATE –

LIGAMENTS –

LONG BONES –

MAXIMUM OXYGEN UPTAKE –

MEDIAL ROTATION –

NEURONES –

NUTRIENTS –

OSSIFICATION –

PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEM –

PERIOSTEUM –

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) –

PHOSPHAGEN SYSTEM (ATP-PC System) –

PHOSPHOCREATINE –

PLANTAR FLEXION –

PLASMA –

POSTERIOR –

PROTEIN –

PROXIMAL –

SKELETAL MUSCLES –

SUBSTRATES –

SUPERIOR –

STROKE VOLUME (stroke output) –

SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM –

SYNERGISTS –

SYNOVIAL CAVITY –

SYNOVIAL FLUID –

SYNOVIAL JOINT –

VENTILATION –